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Multiple choice question on Culture:part ONE

. If civilisation is what we use, culture is what ……………
a) We are b) I am c) you are d) he is

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2. The term ‘culture’ has its roots in
a) Sociology b) Social anthropology c) Vedic studies d) Ethnography
3. Qualities of any specific human group passed on from one generation to the next represent
a) socialisation b) Learning c) Culture d) Ethos
4. Organisational culture can be seen as having …… levels
a) Three b) Four c) Five d) Two
5. Through which one the following we are made to become ‘what we are’?.
a) Socialisation b) Humanisation c) Subjugation d) Indoctrination
6. The integral part of human behaviour comprising thought, speech, action and artifacts is called
a) Perception b) Culture c) Civilisation d) Business ethics.
7. Organisational culture is NOT made up of which one of the following?
a) Innovation b) Action and Control c) Discovery d) Harmony.
8. ……….. is the process whereby every person is moulded into the image of the employing organization
a) Personalising b) Diffusion c) Confusion removal d) formal socializing
9. The process by which employees try to impose their image on the formal organization is called
a) Personalising b) Diffusion c) Fusion d) Socialising
10. The merger of formal socializing and personalizing processes is called
a) Diffusion b) Fusion c) Unison d) Amalgamation
11. Culture means
a) Mores b) Folkways c) Design for group living d) Convention
12. By organizational design it is meant
a) Organisational blue print b) Tools and techniques c) Processes
d) Corporate culture
13. Whose scholarly book, Culture’s Consequences was one of the first to touch upon issues relating to organizational design and behaviour?
a) Hofstede b) Deming c) Juran d) Feigenbaum
14. Whose name is associated with the theory Z?
a) Pascale b) Ouchi c) Kanter d) Peters and Waterman
15. An understanding of how an organization works can be had by probing into its
a) Solvency b) Balance sheet c) Culture d) Input-output ratio.
16. A unique configuration of norms, values, beliefs and ways of behaving is referred to as
a) Socialisation b) Indoctrination c) Induction d) Culture
17. …….. refers to shared beliefs about how an organization should manage themselves and other employees and conduct business
a) Culture b) Indoctrination c) Induction d) Socialisation
18. The study of organizational culture is rooted more deeply in
a) Social Psychology b) Sociology c) Anthropology d) Social economics
19. Symbols, myths and rituals are important means of understanding social reality. Whose view is this?
a) Karl Marx b) Max Weber c) Emile Durkheim d) Comte
20. Besides traditional or formal, the concept ‘ Charismatic leadership’ for understanding exercise of authority is associated with whose name?
a) Karl Marx b) Comte c) Emile Durkheim d) Max Weber
21. All EXCEPT one are pure types of legitimate authority.
a) Moral b) Rational c) Traditional d) Charismatic
22. …… authority are those elevated to issue commands under normative rules a) Coercive b) Rational c) Traditional d) Charismatic
23. Those exerting authority on grounds of devotion to specific and exceptional sanctity, heroism and exemplary character.
a) Coercive b) Rational c) Charismatic d) Traditional
24. …….. authority rests on an established belief in the sanctity of immemorial practices
a) Coercive b) Rational c) Charismatic d) Traditional
25. All are organizational cultures EXCEPT one.
a) Normative b) Mechanistic c) Organic d) Authoritarian
26. EXCEPT one, all are identified as organizational cultures.
a) Participative b) Ethical c) Management system d) Entrepreneurial
27. Which one is NOT an organizational culture?
a) Paternalistic b) Familial c) Coercive d) Altruistic
28. Which one of the organizational cultures exhibits the values of bureaucracy and feudalism?
a) Normative b) Authoritarian c) Organic d) Mechanistic
29. Which organizational culture stresses flexibility, consultation, change and innovation?
a) Organic b) Authoritarian c) Normative d) Mechanistic
30. Power is concentrated in the boss and obedience to orders and discipline are stressed in which one of the organizational cultures?
a) Entrepreneurial b) Authoritarian c) Mechanistic d) Organic

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Multiple Choice Questions: Part II



Multiple Choice Questions:Prt Ii

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Academic Paper Summary by: DrKUTTIMSU

Published: April 25, 2009

31. The basic belief in …….. culture is that decisions grow out of discussions and collaboration is better than conflict.
a) Altruistic b) Mechanical c) Participative d) Egoistic.

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32. Participative cultures tend to emerge where most organizational members are
a) Rank and file b) Middle managers c) Line managers d) Professionals
33. In participative cultures, organizational members look at each other
a) as equals b) as unequal c) Indifferently d) with animosity.
34. Which one of the organizational cultures believes in an engineering approach to management?
a) Participative b) Management systems. c)Mechanical d) Altruistic
35. In which one of the organizational cultures, technocrats rule the roost?
a)Participative b) Mechanical c) Management systems d) Altruistic
36. Lack of procedural clarity, intuitive decision making, adhoc decisions and so forth are frowned upon in which organizational culture?
a)Participative b) Mechanical c) Altruistic d) Management systems
37. Favouring growth, big deals, empire building, big vision, breakthroughs, being first, boldness in decision making and going in where angels fear to tread are the halls marks of which culture?
a) Entrepreneurial b) Authoritarian c) Mechanistic d) Organic
38. In which culture, the organization is looked upon as a father figure, strict but benevolent and employees consider themselves as members of a family?
a)Participative b) Paternalistic c) Management systems d) Altruistic
39. ………. Culture is found in organisations that have dedicated themselves to doing social good.
a)Participative b) Paternalistic c) Altruistic d) Management systems
40. Entrepreneurial organizations based more on participatory model and less bureaucratic will
a) Resist change b) suffer ‘fear of unknown’ c) stress careers within specialisms. d) prosper and survive
41. Deal and Kennedy’s book on Corporate Cultures is a classic in examining all of the following except one
a) 85/15 Rule which says that 85 percent of problems are due to a system error. b)well articulated values c) Heroes who exemplify the culture d) Rites and rituals that reinforce values.
42. The ’plant community’ which evolves from below out of face to face relations based on shared interests, sentiments, beliefs and values among various groups of employees is analogous to
a) Formal culture b) Informal culture c) Organic culture d) Altruistic culture.
43. The Three ‘Ps’ of behaviour pattern ,namely, prescribed, permitted and prohibited is found in
a) Informal culture b) Organic culture c) Formal culture d) Altruistic culture.
44 . Corporate culture adapting to the needs of of employees, customers and society at large will
a) have competitive edge b) make huge profits c) suffer loss of image
d) Survive and thrive.
45. Which one of the following plays a major role in establishing and perpetuating organizational culture?
a) Informal organization b) Cliques c) Interest groups d) Work groups.
46. Besides making extensive use of statistical measures of quality, who
emphasized the need to change organizational culture?
a) Joseph Juran b) Edward Deming c) Armand Feigenbaum d) Pareto.
47. ………. examines corporate organization from the perspective of how work, people, and formal and informal structure fits together.
a) Histogram b) Design of experiments c) Organisational architecture. d) Cultural change.
48. Whose name is associated with the term ‘organizational architecture’?
a) Joseph Juran b) Edward Deming c) Armand Feigenbaum d) David Nadler.
49. Supportive organizational culture is a condition precedent for Total Quality Management to usher in’: This statement is
a) True b) False c) Contradictory d) Confusing
50. By ‘entrepreneurial vision’ it is meant
a) Eyeing for more sales b) Creation of something big or grand or unique. c) Creating labour intensive organisation d) More outputs for less inputs.
51. Which one is NOT an element that make up a strong culture?
a) Values b) Heroes, rites and rituals c) exogenous factors d) cultural network.
52. Which one of the following is the single greatest influence in shaping a corporate culture?
a) values b)Heroes c) Network d) Business environment
53. Which one of the elements is seen as the heart of corporate culture?
a) Values b) Network c) Rites and rituals d) business environment.
54. ‘Some are born great ’: This view refers to
a) Kings b) Heroes c) Down to earth people d) well mannered
55. Systematic and programmed routines of day to-day life in referred to as
a) Sub-culture b) Network c) Rites and Rituals d) Plant community
56. Which one is seen as a powerful lever for guiding behaviour of people in a company? a) Heroes b) Rites c) Rituals d) Culture
57. System of Informal rules that spells out how people are to behave most of the time is called
a) A Strong Culture b) Affirmative action c) Adversarial system d) Sub-Culture.
58. The suble cues of a culture help convert people into …………….
a) Constructs b) Resources c) Content models d) Contingent workers
59. All EXCEPT one are seen as important in understanding culture.
a) Informal rules b) Sense of belongingness c) Inflexibility
d) vales and beliefs.
60. Which one of the following is a cohesion of values, myths, heroes and symbols
a) Informal Groups b) Sub-culture c) Cabals d)Corporate culture 
Sub-culture c) Cabals d)Corporate culture

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Multiple Choice Questions on Culture:Part III

61. Story tellers, spies, priests, cabals and whisperers constitute the……..
a) Hidden hierarchy b) Rank and file c) Informal groups d) Clique.

62. In a strong culture, who reinforces the basic beliefs of the organization?
a) Personnel Department b) Cultural network c) Process managers
d) CEO.
63. What does Johnson mean by cultural web?
a) Empowerment b) Entrepreneurial strategy c) Elements of culture
d) Network.
64. Which one of the following cannot be used to describe or influence organizational culture?
a) The paradigm b) Control system c) Organisational structure
d) Effective feedback
65. One among the following is not used to describe or influence organizational culture?
a) Intrepreneurial behaviour b) power structure c) Rituals and routines d) Symbols, stories and myths.
66. Which one reflects what the organization is about, what it does; its missions and its values
a) Control system b) The paradigm c) Symbols d) Rituals
67. The processes in place to monitor the ongoing in an organization are called
a) Structure b) Paradigm c) Control system d) Power system
68. All EXCEPT one are the primary sources from where corporate culture has originated.
a) National culture b) dominant leaders c) type and nature of business
d) Vested interests.
69. All are the causal factors, EXCEPT one, which shape a company’s culture.
a) Employers’ association b) Customers c) Technology
d) Competitors
70. Identify which one among the following is NOT a causal factor in shaping corporate culture?
a) Goals, values and beliefs b) Bureaucracy c) organization and resources d) Reward system and measurement.
71. One among the following is NOT a causal factor of corporate culture identified by David Drennan.
a) Legislation and Company environment b) Procedures and policies c)Antagonistic cooperation d) Information and control system.
72. National cultures within which an organization is embedded do not differ
on which one of the following dimensions?
a) Power distance b) Masculinity/ femininity c) Individualism/collectivism
d)employment of strategy
73. If ‘uncertainty avoidance’ is the fourth dimension of national cultures, which one is the fifth?
a) Confucian dynamism b) Geocentrism c) Ethnocentrism d) Polycentrism
74. Power distance refers to
a) Centralisation b) Unequal Distribution c) Equal distribution
d) Decentralization
75. In low power distance nations, ….. of activities is more likely.
a) Centralisation b) Equal distribution c) Decentralization
d) Power equalisation.
76. In high power distance nations, ………… of activities exists.
a) Decentralisation b) Power equalisation c) Inequality
d) Centralisation
77. If individualism is the global ideology, ……… is the specific ideology.
a) Holism b) Equality c) Reason d) Irrationality
78. People remain integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups in……… societies
where protection in exchange for unquestioning loyalty exists.
a) Tribal b) Collective c) Agrarian d) Industrial
79. In which society, while placing emphasis on competition, managers at work are expected to be assertive and decisive?
a) High femininity b) Low femininity c) High masculinity d) Low masculinity.
80. In which society, managers use intuition and strive for consensus and place emphasis on equality, solidarity and quality of work life.
a) Low masculinity b)High masculinity c) Low femininity d)High femininity
81. …….. refers to who makes decisions, how widely decisions spread and what is power based ?
a)Power structure b) Organisational structure c) Control system
d) Paradigm.
82. Which one of the following provides the ‘recipe for administrative paralysis’ ?
a) Excess decision making b) Decisions without being communicated
c) Managerial skills d) Carrying trial balloons.
83. All are the components of organizational structure, EXCEPT one.
a) Complexity b) Formalization c) Power equalization
d) Centralization
84. Horizontal differentiation, vertical differentiation and spatial differentiation are the three parts of …………
a) Power equalization b) Formalization c)Centralization d) Complexity
85. ………. considers where decision-making authority lies.
a) Centralization b) Power equalization c) Formalization
d) Complexity
86. ………… refers to the orientation of members, the nature of tasks they perform and their education and training.
a) Geographical differentiation b) Horizontal differentiation
c) Vertical differentiation d) Power differentiation .
87. Confucion dynamism is linked to the concept of ……..
a) Change b) modernity c) Virtue d) Growth
88. The degree to which long termism and short-termism is the dominant orientation in life is referred to as
a) Transformation b) Modernization c) Traditionalization
d) Confucian dynamism
89. Long term orientation societies do not lay emphasis on ….
a) Conspicuous consumption b) Adaptability c) Limitation on social and status obligation d) Sparing resource utilization .
90.All are important for Short-term orientation societies EXCEPT one.
a) Truth b) Virtue c) Tradition d) Quick results.
a) A Strong Culture b) Affirmative action c) Adversarial system d) Sub-Culture.

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Multiple choice question on Culture: Part IV

91. The importance of leadership as a source of organizational culture was stressed by < br/> a) Schein b) Davis c) Selznick d) Warren Bennis
92. The ability of leaders to accomplish extraordinary things by viewing ‘failure as a stepping stone to success’ is termed as ‘Wallenda Factor’ by
a) Schein b) Davis c) Selznick d) Warren Bennis
93. Who has considered the ‘business environment as the single greatest influence in shaping a corporate culture’?
a) Deal and Kennedy b) Croby c) Deal and Bolman d) Cocheu
94. Some of the more significant sources of an organisations culture include all but one?
a) Stakeholders b) Competitors c) Professional associations d) Strategic issues.
95. The degree of risk an Organization faces depends on all factors EXCEPT one.
a) suppliers and competitors b) scarcity of resources c) Full employment d) Market stability
96. A role culture is ……..
a) Aristocracy b)Autocracy c) Democracy d) Bureaucracy
97. A task culture is based on
a) Expertise b) Rationality c) Position d) Charisma
98. Which type of culture develops when a group recognizes that it is in their own interest to organise on a collective basis?
a) Role culture b) Person culture c) Task culture d) Power culture.
99. Which one of the cultures is highly dependent on trust, empathy, and personal communication for its effectiveness?
a) Role culture b) Person culture c) Power culture d) Task culture
100. Whose name is associated with the four main types of organizational culture called power, role, task and person?
a) Hofstede b) Kanter c) Ouchi d) Harrison
101. Organisational culture is seen to have tremendous impact on all but one of the following:
a) Commitment to distinctive ideology b) Motivation
c) Performance d) Productivity
102. Individual autonomy, structure, reward orientation, consideration and conflicts are the five characteristics tapping the essence of organization’s…..
a) Power b) Culture c) Size d) Resources.
103. Interest in organizational culture stems from all the sources other than one.
a) National culture b) Human resource management c) Class and Control d) Rational and structural nature of organisatioon
104. Human relations, modern structural theory and power and Politics are the three perspectives on organization. Which one is the fourth?
a) Social ecology b) Methodological essentialism c) Ethnography
d) System theory
105. Which perspective is a development based on new theories of motivation and group dynamics?
a) Human relations b) Modern Structural theory c) Systems theory
d) Power and Politics.
106. ……….. perspective focuses on issues of authority and hierarchy as manifested in organizational charts.
a) Human relations b) Modern Structural theory c) Systems theory
d) Power and Politics.
107. Inputs, outputs and the feedback loops are used as a framework in ………….
a) Human relations b) Modern Structural theory c) Systems theory
d) Power and Politics.
108. Which school suggests that organisations are complexes of individuals and coalitions with different and often competing values, interests and preferences?
a) Human relations b) Modern Structural theory c) Systems theory
d) Power and Politics.
109. What is espoused culture?
a) Normative or desired state vision b) Preceding culture
c) Succeeding culture d) Prevailing culture.
110. What is meant by culture-in-practice?
a) Prescribed b) In existence c) Prohibited d) Envisioned
111. Culture is so important to an organization because it helps to
a) Attract customers b) Retain customers c) Cope with the environment
d) Create leaders
112. A leader’s success will depend, to a great extent, upon …………….organizational culture.
a) Practicing b) Communicating c) Handing over d) Understanding
113. Many of the problems confronting leaders can be traced to their ……to analyze and evaluate organizational cultures.
a) Inability b) Lukewarm attitude c) Indifference d) Ambivalence
114. Implementation of new strategies or a strategic plan leading to a new vision, will fail if they are ………. with the organization’s culture.
a) Incoherent b) Inconsistent c) Incombustible d) In alignment
115. Culture can be characterized as consisting of all of the following except one.
a) Behaviour and artifacts b) Values c) Perceptions
d) Assumptions and beliefs
116. Which one of the following mirrors an organization’s value system?
a) Mission b) Vision c) HR philosophy d) Corporate culture
117. How an organization regards its human resources explains its
a) HR Philosophy. b) Vision c)Mission d) Strategy
118. Which one of the following is a major determinant of an organization’s success?
a) Cooperation b) Quality of work life c) Commitment d) Control
Concept and definition of culture, Evolution of CC: Formal vs. informal culture, Importance of CC.
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What definition you will offer to the word ‘minority’?

If you take caste for example, its verticality can be converted
into horizontality and again each horizontal element can be made
vertical. If you cite the brahmins as an example, there are several
groupings among them such as vaishnavites, saivites and so on. Even
among Vaishnavites there are sub castes.There are ‘unequals’ among the
socalled ‘equals’. Even among the majorities you will come across
minorities. A brahmin or a man belonging to a forward caste from a
state other than a state, say X, comes to Y State. In ‘Y’ State, he
will be a linguistic minority. He applies for starting a school for the
benefit of ‘X" State people residing in ‘Y’ State. Excepting the
promoter and a group of people constituting the Board of Directors, a
majority of both the teachers and the taught will be from ‘Y’ State.But
the school being run in ‘Y’ State for the benefit of ‘X’ State people
will get all the benefits as a minority institution and even flout laws
by taking shelter under minority institutions. Majorities get converted
into minorities and exploit the majorities. Such exploitations are
aided by currupt bureaucrats and politicians. Then, which group can be
called ‘minority’?

Posted @ 7/7/2006 10:08 PM 

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ABSTRACT: In this paper, a modest attempt is made to
highlight the contributions of the great
 Tamil Poet Saint Thiruvalluvar
who lived about 2000 years ago, on social thought and social order.
 The contributions of many of the Nineteenth and Twentieth century
western thinkers seemed to have
 toed the line of thinking of their
predecessor in Tamilnadu (India). Using the Parsonian GAIL model,
the analysis traces the constituents of the GAIL model in the writings of Thiruvalluvar. Examining the
functional primacy’ of the subsystems in the direction of and contribution to the maintenance
of social
order, this paper dwells into the famous couplets of
Thirukkkural. The society’s ability to ensure relationship
 among the
people is a vital determinant of social order. One has to take note of
the message that Thirukkural
 offers very seriously to keep the order in
society; or else the society may look like one at enmity with peace.

The science of sociology remains dichotomized. Of the ‘Two Sociologies’(Dawe 1970), one speaks of
 social system and the other social action. Though poles apart, the central problems
of the ‘Two Sociologies’
 revolves around those of order and control.
The sociology of social system considers that without external
or constraints, social and individual well-being will be at the
crossroads. On the other hand, the sociology
 of social action proceeds
with the key notion that truly human social order could be achieved
only when man
is freed from external constraints. The ‘Two Sociologies’
have their intellectual ancestry in functionalism
 on the one hand and conflict theory on the other. One among the
‘sociological trinity’, Emile Durkheim,
whose name is associated with
functionalism, was preoccupied with gaining insight into social order.

Functionalism is inextricably tied up with the question of order. It
asks: ‘how is order maintained in society?
’ Looking at society as a
relatively persisting configuration of elements, functionalism
considers that it is only
 the parts of the society which ensure order,
stability, cohesion and integrity. Though the dialectical model views
 change and tension to be ubiquitous, both functionalism and conflict
theory are based on an equilibrium model of society.
Talcott Parsons (1951), evincing interest in the pattern of interaction and cooperation, believes that all social systems
 are confronted by two sets of problems which need to be resolved. While
the instrumental problems relate to achieving
 certain ends, expressive
problems have to do with the maintenance of efficient cooperation
between individuals.
Refining and shedding more light on this, Parsons
maintains that any social system is subject to four independent
 functional imperatives or problems. The equilibrium or the ‘continued
existence’ of the social system will be in
jeopardy unless answers to
those problems are found. These four ‘functional imperatives’ or
‘problems’ which
 constitute the GAIL model are:
* Goal Attainment
* Adaptation
* Integration
* Latency
Goal attainment refers to setting of goals and moving the system
towards its goal. Adaptation is concerned
 with procuring the means to
achieve these ends. Maintenance of harmony and solidarity in the face
of ‘deviance’
which a discrepancy between ‘ends and means’ engenders,
becomes the concern of Integration. Latency is
concerned with ‘tension
management’ and stability in the face of strains towards
Smelser (1972) considers that certain subsystems become functionally important in meeting the needs of the
 society which GAIL represents. While ‘polity’ as a subsystem aims at resolving the problems of goal attainment,
 the economic subsystem takes care of the ‘Adaptation’ function.
Industry produces and distributes the means by
which survival, progress
and improvement in the standard of living become possible. The ‘Integration’ function
 is concerned with the problem of socialization. The cultural subsystem meets the needs of ‘Latency’, which leads
us to recharge our batteries
and come alive and work as useful members of society. The capacity of
the social system
 to sustain itself is not only augmented, but the
collapse of the social system is also stalled when the ‘functional

pre-requisites’ are satisfied.
This paper is oriented toward the
examination of the ‘functional primacy’ of these subsystems in the
 of an overall contribution to the maintenance of social
order. An effort is, therefore, made to bring above the
watermark of
visibility the extent to which their relevancy remains capsuled in the
couplets of Saint Thiruvalluvar
 who touched upon these aspects several
centuries earlier than many of the sociologists and psychologists.

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Since the goal attainment is characteristically connected with the political aspect of
social organization, it becomes incumbent on the part of the ‘polity’ to devise ways
and means of generation of wealth. Both generation and accumulation of wealth involves
 planning, order may also be seen as explicit in such planning.

Resource mobilization, innovative enactment, preservation and
distribution are the functions of a kingdom. (Thirukkural 39.5)

Besides this, it is necessary for the State to estimate what its actual
revenue is likely to be.
Given so much to spend, how much to be
allocated to what? Such an estimation of income
before opening of the expenditure account is necessary,
as otherwise there is every likelihood of the State coming to grief.

Although the inlet for income is narrow, and small
If the outlet is not expanding, there will be no fall.

The life of person without concept of proportions
Will evaporate and liquidate in the passage of time.

Helping kith and kin should be in proportion to possessions
Any excess will eat away the hard earned wealth.

Though wealth is a pre-requisite and appears to be an end
in itself, Thiruvalluvar resolves the
‘dilemma of ends’. In one stroke,
he explains the importance of wealth as and end and such
 an end
becoming a means to further ends.

Amass wealth; there is no other proper steel
To destroy the arrogance of your foes.

Thiruvalluvar brings out the primacy of accumulation of wealth for
purposes of driving the
enemies out of the State. Insofar as the word
‘enemies’ is concerned, it cannot be seen within
the narrow confines of
protection against external aggression. The word ‘enemies’ has to be
 viewed as having a wider connotation to mean and include the war
against poverty.

The best way of savings and investments will be
To feed the needy poor; it will accumulate for later use.(23.6)

This couplet highlights the fact that the goal of accumulation of
wealth is to eradicate poverty.
 Eradication of poverty, therefore,
comes to stay as one of the main functions of the State.
comes down heavily on the one in abode in Heaven for having created a class
of people born to eke out a livelihood on alms.

If begging has been made a way of life by the Creator
of the world, let Him slog to places, begging in despair.
( 107.2)

Besides being in the nature of a ‘warning signal’ to those in the
saddle, the paramount
necessity of doing away with poverty in order to
ensure the ‘diminishing return’ of social
disorder is also highlighted.
While wealth is seen as a ‘defence mechanism’,
cautions the State to eschew expansionist designs in order to stem
tide towards loss of wealth.

Even if it yields good results, abandon the wealth
which has been obtained by unjust approach.

The seeds of socialist philosophy may be seen as embedded in Tirukkural.

Refraining from being vocal in regard to regulation and limitation of
 Thiruvalluvar’s advocacy is meant to minimize social disorder
and exploitation.
Speaking for the establishment of an egalitarian
social order, in a veiled manner,
Thiruvalluvar pleads with the ‘haves’
to make common cause with the ‘have-nots’
by voluntarily sharing what
they have in excess, be it wealth, or land, or even work.
 Such a change
of heart on the part of the ‘haves’ will help establish a social order
 on ‘consent’. In the form of a ‘social peace treaty’, it becomes
a pre-requisite of social stability
 and integration.
The burning disease of hunger cannot touch him
who is accustomed to sharing his food with others.

To share the food with others and to care for various living beings
is the chief of all virtues enunciated by people of learning
. (33.2)
The riches accumulated by virtue of hard work
are considered as for the use of people who deserve
. (22.2)

Like the drinking water tank filled unto brim
is the wealth of the wise, learned, cultured man of brains
. (22.5)
The wealth accumulated at the hands of the kind man
is like the tree with fruits in central town,
free for all without any ban
. (22.6)

All  parts of a medicinal tree are useful to others
so also the riches in the hands of self-sacrificing seers
. (22.7)

The wealth of a person not liked by others is like
a poisonous tree bearing fruits in the center of a town.

Thiruvalluvar highlights in the above couplets that the very purpose of
 of property gets defeated unless the accumulated wealth is
pressed into service of those
 bereft of the comforts of life in order
to alleviate their sufferings.

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                   ‘ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS’

Having enunciated the principles of socialism to usher in a welfare
Thiruvalluvar suggests that the ‘ends’ could be achieved by
adopting the
‘means’ most appropriate for an agrarian economy. Agriculture
does indeed
occupy a central place in the treatment of various subjects
by Thiruvalluvar.
 While placing agriculture on a high pedestal, he
considers it the queen among occupations.
Amidst all avocations, the world stands behind the plough
in spite of the difficulties, agriculture is still the chief.

In the case of those who pursue agriculture as an occupation, he
proclaims them
as crusaders and sees them as harbingers of hope for the
eradication of poverty.
Those who toil and earn their livelihood from lands
will not beg, but will freely give to those who beg
. (104.5)
Besides agriculture proving itself to be a feeder industry on whose
success depends
 the fortunes or otherwise of other avocations,
agriculture is seen as one which is
 capable of catapulting the economy into soaring heights.
The farmers form the backbone of the society; for
they support those who are unable to till the land
. (104.2)

Those are men who live, that plough the land
all the others go behind for food with folded hands
. (104.3)

The farmers who bring rich harvests to their chief
will see the flags of other Chiefs, below theirs, creep
. (104.4)

While agriculture holds the key to plenty, prosperity and progress,

which are the essential ingredients to keep disorder at bay, commerce
cannot be said to have received a raw deal at the hands of Thiruvalluvar.
 Thiruvalluvar brings out the essentiality of capital formation for ensuring the success of business.

There is no income without capital; even so
there is no status without support proper.

Thiruvalluvar suggests that businessmen should imbibe an egalitarian
 sense of dealing in order
to stay put in business. The relevancy of Thiruvalluvar’s
wise counsel
has to be seen in the context of today’s commercial activities which
 in the cold grip of competition. Such competitions represent an
indirect form of conflict
and undermine social order.

The best interests of merchant are to act
taking care of other’s interests, as his, when he transacts

Though commerce is an integral part of the economy, commerce was not at
its pinnacle
 of glory unlike its counterpart agriculture during the
period when Thiruvalluvar lived.
Notwithstanding the fact that
commercial transactions were done mainly on an individual
 basis, the
importance commerce assumes in shaping the economy has not failed to
the prying eyes of Thiruvalluvar.

                                        ‘SOLIDARITY GROUPINGS’

It is social experience which is seen as engendering the self. Since
‘reality is a social construct’,
a linkage could be established between
social order and socialization when the notion ‘what
is acceptable’ is
taken up for consideration. Individuals
conformity with practices accepted
 as proper behaviour patterns
provides the answer to the question of social order. When conformity

indicates the existence of social order, non-conformity or deviance
spells chaos or disaster. Social
order cannot be brought about unless
individuals take over the meanings, values and expectations

of the social group with which they interact. It is precisely here that
a relationship existing between
 social order and socialization could be
discerned. While socialization involves transmission of
patterns, proper performance of the role by the occupants becomes the
determinant of
 social order. As roles and statuses are the obverse and
reverse of the same coin, what is expected
of each incumbent of a role
needs to be taken cognizance of

The ‘code of conduct’ which
Thiruvalluvar enunciates is not only a ‘macro’ concept,
 but also could
be brought down to a level meaningful to the individual. Though Emile
considered to be one among the ‘sociological trinity’, was
seen as arguing that social norms came
 to be internalized in the
personality of individuals, Thiruvalluvar not only touches upon the
of ’internalization’, but besides speaking about what one has to
’internalize’, he exhorts that one
 should shun those practices which
have been disapproved by the society.

There is no need to shave the head or grow a beard
if acts condemned by the world are spared
. (28.10)

With courage of conviction, Thiruvalluvar says that one is certain to
meet one’s end when one
pursues the path that is ‘prohibited’ or allows
oneself to be carried away by following what is ‘prescribed’.

Destruction will be the culmination
of the acts of commission and omission
. (47.6)

Thiruvalluvar brings out the existence of a homology between the
expectations and acceptance since
 performance of role obligations is
guided by expectations and acceptance.

Do not enter into things that have no authority
and acceptance of the society
. (47.10)

It is not only necessary for an individual to fall in line with
societal expectations, but it is equally
 important for him to take stock
of where lies his own strength as otherwise he is likely to pay
penalty for being unaware of his own capacity and capability.

He, who is not adjustable, nor aware of his strength
but always indulges in self-praise, will soon be wrecked
. (48.4)

Having postulated among others, principles of acts considered
’prohibited’ and ’permitted’,
 Thiruvalluvar brings out the futility of
knowledge, as according to him, its roots lie in what
the society
enjoins on the individuals as practices ’prescribed’ to be followed.
The three
‘Ps’ of behaviour pattern, namely ‘prescribed’ ‘permitted’,
and ‘prohibited’ have received elaborate
 treatment at the hands of

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The three ‘Ps’ of behaviour pattern , namely, ‘prescribed’, ‘permitted’
and ‘prohibited’
 have received elaborate treatment at the hand of

The learned people who have not learned to live

in consonance with the world, are really foolish. (14.10)

To be in unison with the functioning of the world
is what is done by a wise understanding mind.

Since the family
forms the cornerstone of socialization, Thiruvalluvar’s address
directed towards the performance of role obligations by each role
occupant with
 a view to paving the way for social order to usher in. The major roles a man and a
 woman play are as husband and wife and as father and mother of son and daughter.
According to Thiruvalluvar, a family could be taken to have realized its goals when
the couple begin to bestow love and affection on others and lead a righteous way of life.

Love and living virtuously leads family life
its character and utility as nobility and reward.

Without being oblivious of what he means by ‘righteousness’,
 says that an individual has to distance himself from
feelings of being jealous,
greedy and angry and avoid the use of harsh
words so as to thread a ‘righteous’ path.

Envy, desire, anger, harsh words
are avoided in virtuous living.

Insofar as the responsibility
of the husband as father is concerned, he exhorts that
an inalienable
duty is cast on such occupants of roles to ensure that their sons have

access to knowledge. The knowledge so gained should be capable of
keeping them in good stead.
The duty of father is to see that
his offspring occupies the highest seat in the court

Thiruvalluvar’s prescription is a double-edged weapon. Without stopping
with what
 he says as the duty of the father, he considers that a son
should prove himself worthy of
being so by his exemplary conduct.

 The duty of the son to his father is to get the acclaim
‘what penance did his father do to get such a son!’. (7.10)

For the wife, Thiruvalluvar hands down that besides her remaining chaste,
she should take upon herself the responsibility of caring for the husband and
be in possession of all good qualities that go wit her feminine character.

What is more adorable than a woman
if she is strong minded and chaste?

That woman, who untiringly takes care of herself and
her husband earns the appreciation of the society. (6.6)

Thiruvalluvar opines that nothing would give greater pleasure to a
mother than to see
her son make a mark in life. By implication and with
rapidly returning conviction, he
 means that it is obligatory on the
part of a son to measure up to the expectations.

The mother rejoices more to hear her son called ‘great
than when she gave birth to him with all the strain.


To question as to the existence or otherwise of cultural organizations
during the relevant period
 when Thiruvalluvar was alive is of no
consequence, since culture refers to ideational aspects of social life.
 Culture points to a society’s adaptation to its needs. The values
which a society cherish are only elements
 of any cultural complex. It
may be said that values become an integral part of the culture. Though
 examination as to what extent the integration has reached a state of
perfection is not called for,
suffice it would be to say that certain
minimum internal harmony and functional connection exist
between values
and culture on the one hand and social solidarity on the other. This
link needs
to be seen in the context of a threat to the cherished
values which is sure to endanger social solidarity.
discussion here is limiting itself to examine how the various elements
of culture
 are perceived and how these transmissible intellectual
aspects of civilization make their
 entry into Thirukkural.
Thiruvalluvar may be seen to motivate people to win rewards through

conformance to values. In the case of those who remain without being
motivated, he cautions them
 that non-conformance will entail forfeiture
of the goodwill, respect and esteem of others.
In his effort to
persuade people to adopt or conform to specified patterns of behaviour,

Thiruvalluvar brings into play both positive and negative methods of
social control.
Each of the positive courses of action pursued is shown
to have a fundamental
 advantage over all the negative ones.

Chapter 8, Thiruvalluvar makes an attempt to dilate upon the importance
 of universal love or affection from a disinterested motive. He
considers that
love provides the springboard to lead a contented life.
It is to be
appreciated that a contented life becomes a continual
People who enjoy life and acquire fame
are said to have qualified with a life of love
. (8.5)

In driving home
the point in regard to hospitality, Thiruvalluvar views
 that those who
are given to the practice of being hospitable will have everything
gain and nothing to lose.
In his house, who treats his worthy guests with pleasure
The Goddess of wealth will reside with all Her treasures
The family man who daily entertains and welcomes guests
Will not be ruined for want of funds
. (9.3)

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